Endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum - Wikipedi

The Endoplasmic Reticulum - Molecular Biology of the Cell

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in biology, a continuous membrane system that forms a series of flattened sacs within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and serves multiple functions, being important particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins
  2. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of biosynthesis of many cellular components. Many membrane components are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum, including membrane proteins and membrane lipids. The endoplasmic reticulum is subdivided into rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Definition: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large organelle composed of membranous sheets and tubules that start near the nucleus and stretch throughout the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum produces, packages, and secretes many of the products a cell creates
  4. الشبكة الهيولية الباطنة أو الداخلية أو الشبكة الإندوبلازمية أو الشبكة البلازمية الداخلية (بالإنجليزية: Endoplasmic reticulum)‏ هي عضية خلوية تتواجد في خلايا حقيقيات النوى وتتكون من شبكة مترابطة من النبيبات والحويصلات و الأكياس الغشائية المسطحة أو بنيات تشبه الأنابيب تسمى صهاريج
  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Definition The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large organelle made of membranous sheets and tubules that begin near the nucleus and extend across the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum creates, packages, and secretes many of the products created by a cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum Edited by Angel Catala National University of La Plata The purpose of this book is to concentrate on recent developments on endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress ER stress is an important contributor of β-cell failure in T2D and has been postulated to result from increased biosynthetic demand induced by chronic hyperglycemia, elevated FFA, and chronic overnutrition

This video describes the structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes inside a cell through which proteins and other molecules move. Proteins are assembled at organelles called ribosomes. When proteins are destined to be part of the cell membrane or exported from the cell, the ribosomes assembling them attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, giving it a rough appearance Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum, or RER, gets its name from the ribosomes embedded in its surface...which make it look rough! The rough endoplasmic reticulum is situated closest to the nucleus—in fact, it's attached to the nuclear envelope—so that molecules can move directly between the membranes

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when ER homeostasis is perturbed with accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein or calcium depletion Dark small circles in the network are mitochondria. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum Targeting to Amplify Immunogenic Cell Death for Cancer Immunotherapy Immunogenic cell death (ICD) elicited by photodynamic therapy (PDT) is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress The endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membranous cisternae (flattened sacs) extending throughout the cytoplasm.Often it constitutes more than half of the total membrane in the cell. This structure was first noted in the late 19th century, when studies of stained cells indicated the presence of some type of extensive cytoplasmic structure, then termed the. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an internal membrane that forms branching networks of many interconnected sacs and tubes. There are two types of ER: rough ER and smooth ER. The outer side (facing the cytosol) of the rough ER is studded with ribosomes. Under the electron microscope, the dense granular ribosomes gave the name rough ER

The endoplasmic reticulum: structure, function and

The Structure and Function of the Endoplasmic Reticulu

Define endoplasmic reticulum. endoplasmic reticulum synonyms, endoplasmic reticulum pronunciation, endoplasmic reticulum translation, English dictionary definition of endoplasmic reticulum. n. A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.. 1,048 endoplasmic reticulum stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See endoplasmic reticulum stock video clips. of 11. rough endoplasmic reticulum organelles endoplasmic protein biosynthesis organelles cells golgi complex rough endoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum vector golgi body golgi apparatus. Try these curated. The endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum ( ER) plays a key role in the modification of proteins and the synthesis of lipids. It consists of a network of membranous tubules and flattened sacs. The discs and tubules of the ER are hollow, and the space inside is called the lumen Endoplasmic reticulum is the interconnected system of membrane-bounded tubules and vesicles which form irregular reticulum or network in the cytoplasmic matrix. All nucleated animal and plant cells contain endoplasmic reticulum. This membranous system extends throughout the cytoplasm from nuclear membrane to plasma membrane

endoplasmic reticulum Definition, Function, & Location

Endoplasmic reticulum - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum 3. Structure 4. Functions. Discovery of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): It was discovered independently by Porter (1945) and Thompson (1945). The name was given by Porter in 1953. Endoplasmic reticulum is a 3-dimensional, complicated and inter­connected syncrri of membrane-lined channels that run through the cytoplasm
  2. The Functions of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum are: As they have the presence of ribosomes, so they are the site of protein synthesis. As they are sites of protein... They are responsible for giving rise to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. They help in providing the precursors of the enzymes that.
  3. The endoplasmic reticulum is composed of sac-like structures called cisternae that are folded and bound together. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which has a smooth folded surface, and rough endoplasmic reticulum which has a surface studded with ribosomes, making it appear bumpy
  4. Endoplasmic reticulum is a collection of tubes that make, package, and transport proteins and fats. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has protein-making ribosomes on its surface, so it helps make and.

小胞体(しょうほうたい、英語: endoplasmic reticulum )とは真核生物の細胞小器官の一つであり、一重の生体膜に囲まれた板状あるいは網状の膜系。 核膜の外膜とつながっている。 電子顕微鏡による観察でその存在が明確に認識された The endoplasmic reticulum, known to its friends as the ER, is often the largest organelle in eukaryotic cells. As shown in Figure 1, the structure of the ER is made up of a single, continuous membrane system, often spreading its cisternae and tubules across the entire cytoplasm Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Definition. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) is a membranous organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It is a subset of the endomembrane system of the endoplasmic reticulum. Its main functions are the synthesis of lipids, steroid hormones, the detoxification of harmful metabolic byproducts and the storage and metabolism of calcium ions within the cell The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes the starting point of the secretory pathway where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized. Correct folding of these ER client proteins is required for their proper function, which critically depends on different ER-resident determinants such as chaperones, folding catalysts, ATP and Ca 2+ levels (Braakman and Bulleid, 2011)

Endoplasmic Reticulum - Wrapping it Up Another organelle in the cell is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain, the ER functions as a manufacturing and packaging system. It works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, mRNA, and tRNA. Structurally, the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes found throughout the cell and. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a quality control mechanism that allows for targeted degradation of proteins in the ER. Zhou et al. found that a particular protein complex in ERAD, Sel1L-Hrd1, regulates the dynamics of another organelle, the mitochondrion, by altering ER-mitochondria contacts. Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging in brown adipocytes from cold. The endoplasmic reticulum ( endoplasmic meaning within the cytoplasm , reticulum meaning little net in Latin) or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins.

Endoplasmic‌ ‌Reticulum‌ - Definition, Structure and Type

The Endoplasmic Reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and appears as a complex, folded mass. The endoplasmic reticulum creates an extensive network of membranes within the eukaryotic cell. The ER is a membranous bag of separate compartments, or sacs, which are connected by membranous tubules The smooth endoplasmic reticulum also metabolizes natural and ingested toxins in all cell types. Metabolizing naturally produced toxins is a continuous process; a cell would quickly die if this function was not carried out. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells metabolize a commonly ingested toxin: alcohol Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a secretory protein quality control process that results in the removal of aberrant proteins from the ER Endoplasmic Reticulum In BOTH types of cells. Carries substances, like proteins, to various parts of the cell. Golgi Body/Complex In BOTH types of cells. Receives materials from endoplasmic reticulum, distributes materials. +7 more term Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen (By similarity). Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction (PubMed.

شبكة إندوبلازمية - ويكيبيدي

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular stress response related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been found to be conserved between all mammalian species, as well as yeast and worm organisms.. The UPR is activated in response to an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In this scenario, the UPR has three aims. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a membranous labyrinth that extends throughout the cytoplasm of the cell as a single continuous network of flattened sacs and tubules. The ER accounts for more than half the total membrane in eukaryotic cells and 10% of a cell's total volume, thus representing one of the largest organelles more. As I am sure you know, the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is a network of cisternae around the nucleus. Thus, there is only one network of ER in a cell, but within that is a number of sacs and tubes that make up the entire ER. As for the Golgi apparatus (or body), is to is made up of multiple sections of cisternae (just like the ER, yet in a. Endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum ( ER) is a type of organelle in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane . This biology article is a stub The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.The endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells, but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a type of endoplasmic reticulum consisting of flattened sacs, studded with protein-synthesizing particles termed ribosomes on the outer surface.. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a part of the endomembrane system that is present in the cytoplasm of the cell Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex network of membranes, that is found in the form tubules, and compressed, sac-like structures called cisternae. The internal space of the organelle, called cisternal space, is interconnected and fluid-filled. The cisternal space is found in continuation with the perinuclear space - the space between the. endoplasmic reticulum translate: 內質網,初漿 . Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.The endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells, but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle.It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm.The endoplasmic reticulum is in cells that have a nucleus: in eukaryote cells but not in prokaryote cells. It takes these forms

endoplasmic reticulum definition: 1. a network of tubes within a cell that transports substances inside the cell and is needed for. Learn more Reticulum means a fine network. So endoplasmic reticulum is an interlinked network of cisternae (membrane disks), vesicles (intracellular transport sacs) and tubules inside a eukaryotic cell. The endoplasmic reticulum was first observed by Ernest Fullam, Keith Porter and Albert Claude, in the year 1945 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle (a specialized cell part) that appears in all eukaryotic cells. (Eukaryotic organisms include all living things except for bacteria and cyanobacteria, the latter widely known as blue-green algae.) The ER is made of a series of membranes that extend throughout the jelly-like cytoplasm The endoplasmic reticulum is a series of folded vesicles that provide a surface for many cellular activities, including the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein production in ribosomes The endoplasmic reticulum ER is in essence the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell and has many other important functions such as protein foldingIt is a type of organelle made up of two subunits rough endoplasmic reticulum RER and smooth endoplasmic reticulum SERThe endoplasmic reticulum is found in most eukaryotic cells and forms an.

Quia - AP Chapter 6 - Cells (basic)

Endoplasmic Reticulum - Definition, Function and Structur

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM is a network of connected membrane tubes. Reticulum means little net and endoplasmic means inside the cytoplasm. The endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) has three major jobs. It is where certain molecules are synthesized, stored, and transported. Some endoplasmic reticulum (called smooth, no ribosomes) is where fatty acids. Endoplasmic Reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is a multifold membranous structure within eukaryotic cells which plays a major role in the synthesis of the complex molecules required by the cell and the organism as a whole. Often the membranes of these structures are lined with ribosomes on their outer surfaces, giving them a rough appearance. These parts are called the rough endoplasmic. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Structure. The network of folded membranes that comprises the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in all eukaryotic cells constitutes greater than half of the total membrane content in the average animal cell. The branching tubules and flattened sacs of the ER come in two forms: membrane bound by ribosomes (rough ER) or. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a network of tubes and vesicles, or transporting molecules, inside an animal cell next to the nucleus. The main functions of the endoplasmic reticulum include synthesizing protein molecules; synthesizing lipids and fats, like cholesterol; and the metabolism of drugs and medicines endoplasmic reticulum an ultramicroscopic organelle of nearly all higher plant and animal cells, consisting of a system of membrane-bound cavities in the cytoplasm, occurring in two types: granular or rough-surfaced, bearing large numbers of ribosomes on its outer surface, and agranular or smooth-surfaced

Endoplasmic Reticulum IntechOpe

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells that manufactures, processes, transports, and stores chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive, complex system of a more or less continuous distribution of convoluted membrane-bound cavities that take up a sizable portion of the cytosol Endoplasmic reticulum 1)It provides a pathway for distribution of nuclear material from one cell to other. 2)Certain enzymes present in SER synthesise fat,steroids,cholesterol. 3)RER help in transport of protein which are synthesised by ribosomes on their surface. 4)SER is involved in the process of.

Transcription vs Translation - Difference and Comparison

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of folding of membrane and secreted proteins in the cell. Physiological or pathological processes that disturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum cause ER stress and activate a set of signaling pathways termed the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR can promote cellular repair and sustained survival by reducing the load of unfolded. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus are primarily responsible for the proper sorting of lipids and proteins in cells. Consequently, most of the cell-permeant probes for these organelles are either lipids or chemicals that affect protein movement

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress - an overview ScienceDirect

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is the cell's highway and is responsible for the production of the protein and lipid components of most of the cell's organelles. There are two types of ER- rough, which synthesizes proteins to be exported and is covered with ribosomes, and smooth, which organizes the synthesis of lipids and other.
  2. al space and it separates the lumen from the cytosol. Endoplasmic Reticulum is of two types, that is, smooth ER and Rough ER
  3. antly known as a protein-folding checkpoint, which has an... 3. The unfolded protein.
  4. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle found within eukaryotic cells that is responsible for the transport, processing, and production of lipids and proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum produces both lipids and proteins for the membrane of the cell. These lipids and proteins are also used to compose other parts of the cell such as vacuoles, the cell membrane, the Golgi apparatus.
  5. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises morphologically and functionally distinct domains: sheets and interconnected tubules. These domains undergo dynamic reshaping in response to changes in the cellular environment. However, the mechanisms behind this rapid remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we report that ER remodeling is actively driven by lysosomes, following lysosome repositioning in.
  6. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest, membrane-bound intracellular organelle found in eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles). It's a highly dynamic organelle that radiates from the nuclear envelope towards the plasma membrane. Enclosed in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum is the lumen that is separate.
  7. ant of ceramide-induced apoptosis: significance for the molecular mechanism of Bcl-2 action. EMBO J. 2001. 20 :2690-2701

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. It is an interconnected network of flattened sacs or tubes encased in membranes. These membranes are continuous, joining with the outer membrane of the nuclear membrane. ER occurs in almost every type of eukaryotic cell except red blood cells and sperm cells The physical-functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with mitochondria allows for the direct transfer of Ca2+ between organelles and is an important avenue for rapidly increasing. Difference Between Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum And Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes that is present inside eukaryotic cells. These structures are responsible for the production and transportation of proteins, fats and other essential molecules required for the functioning of a cell Fig. 3D reconstruction of two cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum Fig. Endoplasmic reticulum in a perikaryon of a neocortical pyramidal neuron Fig. Endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in a perikaryon Fig. 3D reconstruction of granular endoplasmic reticulum Fig. 3D reconstruction of granular.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules that collectively modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids. However, these two functions are performed in separate areas of the ER: the rough ER and the smooth ER. The hollow portion of the ER tubules is called the lumen or cisternal space Correct answers: 1 question: What is Endoplasmic Reticulum?-, The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, is an interconnected series of membranous sacs and tubules that is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. One portion of the ER, the rough ER, gets its name from the ribosomes that are attached to it. When viewed microscopically, the ribosomes give this portion of ER a rough appearance

Endoplasmic Reticulum - YouTub

  1. the endoplasmic reticulum membrane before being transported in vesiclestotheplasmamembrane.ThelaboratoriesofG.BlobelandC. Milstein then discovered that these proteins are directed to the endo-plasmic reticulum membrane by signal sequences2,3. A little later, signal sequences were also found to direct the translocation of pro
  2. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes or tubes in a cell through which materials move. As an organelle in a eukaryotic cell (complex cells having nuclei and other organelles), it is involved with the production of new proteins as well as with the movement of materials throughout the cell
  3. 36. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum or sER has a completely different function. It is the site where lipids are synthesized, carbohydrates (sugars) are metabolized and various toxins and drugs are detoxified. 37. The synthesis of lipids takes place on the interface where the membrane of the sER meets the Cytoplasm

Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth) - Genom

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum In the light microscope, the rough endoplasmic reticulum can be visualized as masses of material staining with basic dyes. The basophilia of the RER in H&E staining is due to the presence of negatively charged rRNA in the ribosomes attached to the cisternae Endoplasmic Reticulum - Science topic. A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer. The potential effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the apoptosis of myocardial cells from mice with heart failure induced by acute viral myocarditis caused by B 3 Coxsackie virus. Comparison of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial biogenesis responses after 12 weeks of treadmill running and ladder climbing exercises in the. In homeostasis, cellular processes are in a dynamic equilibrium. Perturbation of homeostasis causes stress. In this review I summarize how perturbation of three major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells-protein folding, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and storing intracellular Ca2+ - causes ER stress and activates signaling pathways collectively termed the. endoplasmic reticulum ( plural endoplasmic reticula ) ( cytology) A network of membranes within the cytoplasm of cells, where proteins and lipids are synthesized

3D Model of Animal Cell - YouTube

What Is the Endoplasmic Reticulum? What Does It Do

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum, found in eukaryotic cells, is a network of tubes or flat sacs — kind of like a labyrinth of membranes — that serves as the factory of the cell, manufacturing and packaging up proteins and lipids to send around the cell, and even outside of it
  2. Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic Reticulum: All the three structures of endoplasmic reticulum are bounded by a thin membrane of 50 to 60 A thick. Like plasma membrane, nucleus, etc., its membrane is also formed of three layers—outer and inner dense layers are composed of protein molecules, and the two middle thin and transparent layers are of.
  3. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is an organelle found in eukaryotes, contains flattened membranous sacs, interconnected with each other. These sacs are tube-like structures, which are called cisternae. Cisternae are held together by the cytoskeleton of the cell. Two types of ER is found: smooth ER and rough ER
  4. Zn2+ plays an important role in the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its deficiency can cause ER stress, which is related to a wide range of diseases. In order to provide tools to better understand the role of mobile Zn2+ in ER processes, the first custom designed ER-localised fluorescen Most popular 2019-2020 analytical chemistry articles The Mechanics of Supramolecular.
  5. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a major role in regulating synthesis, folding, and orderly transport of proteins. It is also essentially involved in various cellular signaling processes, prima..
  6. ant mammals, lined with a membrane having honeycombed ridges. 3. Reticulum A constellation in the Southern Hemisphere near Dorado and Horologium. [Latin rēticulum, di
  7. o acid chains enter the lumen of the rough ER.

Video: Endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver disease

Endoplasmic Reticulum - Biolog

Endoplasmic Reticulum study guide by morak44 includes 10 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a long, convoluted structure inside the cell that is folded into a series of sacs along its course. It connects the nucleus of the cell with its plasma membrane and is often intertwined with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which has a subtly different function and is folded into a more tubular shape than the rough endoplasmic reticulum

What is the difference between rough er and smooth erAnimal Cell

Thus, a smooth endoplasmic reticulum analogy could be the human brain. The brain processes all kinds of information that are fed to it and then, decides on whether to use this information or to simply store it or act on it. Thus, it is like the central processing unit of the cell. This was a small explanation of the endoplasmic reticulum analogy Autophagy is involved in the occurrence and development of tumors. Here, a pH-responsive polymersome codelivering hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and tunicamycin (Tuni) drugs is developed to simultaneously induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagic flux blockade for achieving an antitumor effect and inhibiting tumor metastasis. The pH response of poly(β-amino ester) and HCQ. What does endoplasmic-reticulum mean? The endoplasmic reticulum is defined as a series of folded membranes in the cells which are associated with protein synt..

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